Cloning

Cloning (applies to all life forms) Cloning is the process of creating a genetic duplicate in some capacity(e.g., cells, tissue, or a whole organism)Some uses of cloning include reproductive cloning to create a genetically identical organism and therapeutic cloning to create tissues such as blood cells for use in the treatment of disease

STEP BY STEP NSTRUCTIONS TO FOLLOW

1.READ THE TOPIC SELECTION WORKSHEET

2. USE MY OUTLINE SPECIFICALLY FOR THIS POWERPOINT.

3. READ WHAT MUST BE ADDRESSED IN THE POWERPOINT ATTACHMENT

4. READ ALL THE RUBRIC.

Requirements of Submission: Your final presentation should be 12–15 slides in length, using correct APA format for references and in-text citations. Include
images as needed to make your points, ensuring that the images are also cited and referenced correctly.

USE MY REFERENCES and CITATIONS IN MY OUTLINE ATTACTCHMENT.

BIO 101

Final Project Topic Selection and Resources Worksheet

Michael Sarfo

Southern New Hampshire University

PART 1: Provide answers to the following prompts.
1. Topic

Write your topic here and provide a draft title for your project.

Cloning

Title: Artificial and Natural cloning Basic Facts

2. Brief Description of Topic

Provide at least one paragraph (5–7 sentences) that describes your topic choice and what you will investigate for your final project.

Nature has its wonders. Some plants including some mono-celled organisms produce offspring that are genetically identified through what we call asexual reproduction, with the likes of bacteria. In this reproduction, an individual is generated from a copy of a single cell originating from the parent organism.

Natural cloning occurs in both humans and animals and is referred to as identical twins. Artificial cloning consists of therapeutic, reproductive as well as gene cloning which can also be done to both animals and humans. While each type of cloning is unique on its own, they are all related in some manner, but gene cloning is a bit different from the others which share many similar techniques although done for various purposes.

3. Resources

Describe several sources of information that you will use.

The resources am planning to use includes; Textbook, Medical Journal, and websites, google scholar, Shapiro Library among others.
PART 2: Answer the following questions.
1. In which module is the final project presentation due? Module 7

2. Briefly describe your experience with presentation software such as PowerPoint, Google Slides, or Prezi. Have you previously used such software to make a presentation? I have previously used Microsoft PowerPoint many times throughout my various courses, and I love utilizing its fantastic presentation features.
3. Where in the course resources can you find the information needed to guide your final project? Specifically, what is the name of the folder, and how can it be accessed? Course information-Assignment guidelines and Rubric

4. List any questions for the instructor or any concerns that you may have about this project. None for now.

Running head: BIO 101 MILESTONE TWO

BIO 101 MILESTONE TWO 3

BIO 101: Milestone Two

Michael Sarfo

Southern New Hampshire University

PART 1: Written Presentation Outline

Overview:

As said previously, nature has its wonders in that some plants including some mono-celled organisms’ produces offspring’s that are genetically identified through a process referred to as asexual reproduction, with the likes of bacteria. This together with the case of a woman giving birth to identical twins constitutes a natural form of cloning (Glover, 2015). The artificial cloning composes of reproductive cloning, gene cloning as well as therapeutic cloning which can be done to both animals and humans. While gene cloning is a bit different from the other artificial cloning methods which share several similar processes, gene cloning either produces segments of an individual’s DNA or produces copies of individual genes. Therapeutic cloning is mainly associated with stem cell research typically used for medical research on diseased and injured people. All cloning methods are done to both animals and humans for purposes of reviving an endangered livestock and species.

Arguments for:

In the current world, scientists have continued to use animals such as cows, goats and sheep to make medicinal proteins with the present genetic cloning. This is done by changing the DNA of an animal’s cell mainly by inserting a particular gene that codes for a drug or a vaccine (Dr Lica, 2014). The scientists eventually cause the animal to generate the drug or vaccine within their produce while at the same time passing it to their offspring’s. They can as well use the animal’s produce to make more quantities of the drug faster. Moreover, the scientists can have a much larger test group of animals for further study with reproductive cloning which would create more efficiency despite supporting scientific studies. Also, stem cell research would be made easier with therapeutic cloning making it possible to reproduce organs for various purposes.

Arguments against:

Genetic cloning is the most used form of cloning today that has a myriad of advantages with few opposing arguments. A few people believe that manipulating nature is not morally right despite the current remarkable results of the same. However, reproductive cloning is a highly inefficient process which makes many of the cloned animal embryos to be diseased or even deformed few moments after birth. To add on this, therapeutic cloning requires destruction of human embryos making it be highly frowned upon mainly by major pro-life activists. Moreover, studies show that after 60 cycles of cell division, stem cells starts to mutate into cancer cells making people think that the issue has not been well researched.

A general overview of the current attitudes about the topic:

Genetic cloning has gone to the extent of generating ‘’designer babies” a shown by CNN.com, last year, on this article that focused on genetic cloning of human embryos for research.

http://www.cnn.com/2016/02/01/health/genetically-modified-embryos-dna-uk-scientists/

Through reproductive cloning, the first cloned mammal in the world, Dolly sheep, was developed and the CNN.com again showed how this sheep had to be injected with a lethal injection since some signs of lung cancer were progressively being seen, later in the year 2015.

http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/30/health/cloning-fast-facts/

From this article, there is progress being made although the idea of reproductive cloning being an inefficient process still holds.

In the year 2014, CNN.com posted an article on therapeutic cloning that presented a positive perspective concerning stem cell research with less focus on human embryos destruction but which provided more details on the medical benefits of the research.

http://www.cnn.com/2014/04/28/health/stem-cell-breakthrough/

PART 2: References

1. Citation: Glover, D., & Hames, B. (2015). DNA cloning: A practical approach. Oxford: IRL Press.

Summary: Being part of a series, this volume together with the others provides a comprehensive practical manual concerning the current process of DNA recombinant.

Justification: The volume well describes the process used for analyses of genomes that are complex as well as the cloning of large DNA fragments together with their physical mapping.

2. Citation: Dr. Lica, K. (2014). Understanding DNA and gene cloning: A guide for the curious. New York: Wiley.

Summary: The book explains the key concepts of molecular genetics

Justification: The basics of genetic cloning will be well understood through this resource.

3. Citation: Bowring, F. (2012). Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: A critique. Social Science & Medicine, 58(2), 401-409.

Summary: The resource summarizes key milestones in the development of nuclear transplant and goes ahead to explain the significance of cloning to research with relation to embryonic stem cells. It as well differentiates between reproductive and therapeutic cloning.

Justification: The resource will help examine the ethics and science of human cloning.

4. Citation: Colman, A. (2013). Therapeutic cloning: Concepts and practicalities. Trends in Biotechnology, 18(5), 192-196.

Summary: The volume examines the usage of embryonic stem cells as a source of multiple cell types as used in the repair of tissues that has been there for about 20 years now. Also, the recent breakthrough in the somatic nuclear transfer, as well as the derivation of the human embryonic stem, has been well examined that has produced a flurry of newer activities in the respective area.

Justification: Readers will get necessary information concerning therapeutic cloning.

5. Citation: Holt, W. V., Packard, A. R, & Prather, R. S. (2014). Wildlife Conservation and Reproductive Cloning. Reproduction, 127, 317-324.

Summary: Production of offspring through nuclear transfer has been examined here.

Justification: The resource will help justify reproductive cloning by showing its benefits.

 
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