•Identify two nurse-sensitive indicators of quality that relate to patient care and analyze the influence of early quality improvement theories and philosophies on the development of those indicators. For this exercise, do not choose nurse sensitive indicators that relate to staffing levels.

•Identify two nurse-sensitive indicators of quality that relate to patient care and analyze the influence of early quality improvement theories and philosophies on the development of those indicators. For this exercise, do not choose nurse sensitive indicators that relate to staffing levels.

•Find and cite at least 2 nursing research articles you located and evaluate how these indicators influence a practice setting.

Include an introduction and a conclusion, in text citations and subheadings
Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Hours per Patient Day
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Institutional Affiliation

Pressure Ulcer Prevalence and Hours per Patient Day
Introduction
Pressure ulcers within a healthcare facility is a strong indication of poor quality of patient care. This low quality of patient care is characterized by reduced nursing hours per patient day. The early quality improvement theories and philosophies can help improve the quality of patient care through an increase in the number of nursing hours per patient day that will lead to a reduction in the number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.
Pressure Ulcer Prevalence, Patient Care, Early Quality Improvement Theories/ Philosophies
Some regions have a high prevalence rate of pressure ulcers due to improper scheduling and patient care practices (Guadagnin, Neves, Santana, & Guilhem, 2014). The number of pressure ulcers cases per 1000 patient days indicates the quality of care in a hospital (Hart, Berquist, Gajewski, & Dunton, 2006; Montalvo, 2007). The early quality improvement theories and philosophies offer four essential steps. First, the availability of the necessary philosophies and theories influences a search for the nested approach to adopt. Secondly, a new persuasive attitude is developed. A decision on the best criteria to adopt is made followed by the implementation steps. Finally, confirmation of the effectiveness of the approach is made to ensure continuous improvement in the improved quality of care.
Hours per Patient Day, Patient Care, Early Quality Improvement Theories/ Philosophies
Similarly, the number of hours per patient care influences the quality of care (McDonald, Graham, & Grimshaw, 2004). High patient hours per day improves the quality of care by addressing issues as they emerge and monitor trends better. Similar to the pressure ulcer case, early quality improvement theories and philosophies tend to create a proactive intervention mechanism (Stern et al., 2014). Kurtzman and Corrigan (2007) assert that these models reduce complexities inpatient care for proactive issue analysis and attendance.
Conclusion
In conclusion, patient care is central to nursing. The rate of hours per patient influences the quality of care, which may also influence the rate of pressure ulcers. The early quality improvement theories and philosophies influence both issues through the development of proactive intervention programs.
References
Guadagnin, R., Neves, R. D., Santana, L. A., & Guilhem, D. B. (2014). An image mining based approach to detect pressure ulcer stage. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis, 24(2), 292-296. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1054661814020084
Hart, S., Berquist, S., Gajewski, B., & Dunton, N. (2006). Reliability testing of the National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators pressure ulcer indicator. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 21(3), 256-265.
Kurtzman, E.T., & Corrigan, J.M. (2007). Measuring the contribution of nursing to quality, patient safety, and health care outcomes. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice, 8(1), 20-36.
McDonald, K. M., Graham, I. D. & Grimshaw, J. (2004). Closing the quality gap: A critical analysis of quality improvement strategies. Technical Review, 9(1), 1-48. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK43917/
Montalvo, I. (2007). The national database of nursing quality indicators (NDNQI). The Online journal of issues in Nursing, 12(3). doi:10.3912/OJIN.Vol12No03Man02
Stern, A., Mitsakakis, N., Paulden, M., Alibhai, S., Wong, J., Tomlinson, G., Zwarenstein, M. (2014). Pressure ulcer multidisciplinary teams via telemedicine: A pragmatic cluster randomized stepped wedge trial in long-term care. BMC Health Services Research, 14, 83. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-14-83


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