Explain in visual format (concept map) the causes, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, management, course, prognosis and prevention of left heart failure.

Assessment – Concept Map and Guided Question Response

Aim of assessment-

The purpose of this assessment is to enable students to:

1. Explain in visual format (concept map) the causes, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, management, course, prognosis and prevention of left heart failure.

2. Explain the underlying pathophysiology of clinical manifestations of an acute exacerbation of chronic left heart failure.

3. Discuss nursing strategies and evidence-based rationales to manage a patient with an acute exacerbation of chronic left heart failure (acute pulmonary oedema).

4. Describe the nursing role and responsibilities in the use of pharmacological interventions related to an acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure.

Details-

You are to develop a concept map for the topic left heart failure and answer three questions related to an exacerbation left heart failure. References are to include three (3) recent, relevant journal articles as well as textbook material and evidence-based resources.

Concept Man

The concept map must be computer generated.

When researching the topic, use the pathophysiology template that is on the unit vUWS site to assist you in organising your information. The template will also assist in identifying key concepts and their relationships.

Concept boxes should have titles with relevant content summarised within the box.

The summarised content may be in point format and size 10 font (Arial or Times New Roman) may be used on the concept map.

Concept boxes must be linked using lines and linking words/phrases to demonstrate logical relationships between concepts.

For conciseness, numbers may be used to replace traditional APA referencing within concept boxes. If you use numbers, you must include a reference list in numerical order, corresponding to your references immediately after the concept map.

Critical thinking and creativity are essential components of the concept map. The map design needs to be visually stimulating.

Case study-

A 78 year old female, Mrs Brown, was admitted to the Emergency Department at 6am after waking up with severe breathlessness. Her family informed you that the patient has a history of heart failure that had been diagnosed two years ago. On admission to the Emergency Department the clinical manifestations were:

Severe dyspnoea

Respiratory rate 24 breaths/minute

SpO 2 85% at room air

BP 170/95mmHg

Pulse rate 110beats/minute

On auscultation crackles at the base of each lung

Mrs Brown was connected to an ECG monitor that showed atrial fibrillation. A diagnosis of an acute exacerbation of heart failure was made.

Question 1- Explain the pathogenesis causing the clinical manifestations with which Mrs Brown presented.

Question 2- Discuss two high priority nursing strategies to manage Mrs Brown and provide evidence-based rationales for these strategies.

Question 3- Two of the drugs that were given to Mrs Brown were IV furosemide and glyceryl trinitrate.

a) Discuss the mode of action of each of these drugs relating to the underlying pathogenesis.

b) Relating your answer to the pharmacology of the two drugs, discuss how you would monitor for and respond to adverse effects of the drugs.

c) Explain how you would evaluate the therapeutic effect of the drugs.

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