Drugs used in children with ADHD
Welcome to week 3: I can’t believe this is week 3 already. I have enjoyed reviewing your discussions.
I want to let all know, I post the next week assignments on Sunday Evenings. Since this is a higher level of learning we all should be spend our time each week discussing and reviewing what the week offered. There is a lot to learn and I hope all take advantage of it. One last thing, I do not give assignments information a week or so in advance. (Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
I also give a bit of a snip-it for this week
- Your Instructor will assign a specific disorder for you to research for this Assignment.
- Use the Walden library to research evidence-based treatments for your assigned disorder in children and adolescents. You will need to recommend one FDA-approved drug, one off-label drug, and one nonpharmacological intervention for treating this disorder in children and adolescents.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
THE ASSIGNMENT (1–2 PAGES)
- Recommend one FDA-approved drug, one off-label drug, and one nonpharmacological intervention for treating your assigned disorder in children and adolescents.
- Explain the risk assessment you would use to inform your treatment decision making. What are the risks and benefits of the FDA-approved medicine? What are the risks and benefits of the off-label drug?
- Explain whether clinical practice guidelines exist for this disorder and, if so, use them to justify your recommendations. If not, explain what information you would need to take into consideration.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
- Support your reasoning with at least three scholarly resources, one each on the FDA-approved drug, the off-label, and a non-medication intervention for the disorder. Attach the PDFs of your sources.
Please utilize your syllabus and/or Rubric so your assignment can be completed appropriately.
Assignment 1 requires me to assign a diagnosis for each student. Here is the grouping.
Students with Last name first initial of A through H – Please complete your assignment on Major Depression
Students with Last name first initial of I though S – Please complete your assignment on Generalized Anxiety
Students with Last name first initial of T through Z- Please complete your assignment on ADHD
**** Format in APA 7th edition: – I recommend you utilize Walden’s writing support if you have questions/Please see syllabus for details
- Reflect on your practice exam question results from Week 2. Identify content-area strengths and opportunities for improvement.
- Also reflect on your overall test taking. Was the length of time allotted comfortable, or did you run out of time? Did a particular question format prove difficult?(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
- Based on your practice test question results, and considering the national certification exam, summarize your strengths and opportunities for improvement. Note: Your grade for this Assignment will not be derived from your test results but from your self-reflection and study plan.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
- Create a study plan for this quarter to prepare for the certification exam, including three or four SMART goals and the tasks you need to complete to accomplish each goal. Include a timetable for accomplishing them and a description of how you will measure your progress.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
- Describe resources you would use to accomplish your goals and tasks, such as ways to participate in a study group or review course, mnemonics and other mental strategies, and print or online resources you could use to study.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
This announcement is closed for comments
Search entries or author Filter replies by unreadUnread Collapse replies Expand replies
Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder first diagnosed in children and persists into adulthood. ADHD is characterized by inattention, impulsivity, or being overly active, which affects their ability to focus or behave appropriately (The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2022a). These symptoms appear when children are between 3 and 6 years, affecting significant areas of function at school, with friends, or at home (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2017).(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
One FDA-approved drug for ADHD is Methylphenidate hydrochloride. Methylphenidate hydrochloride is a psychostimulant that blocks the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine neurons, increasing their concentration and creating a stimulant effect in the prefrontal cortex to enable thinking and attention. Methylphenidate is tolerated well and effectively improves ADHD symptoms (Verghese & Abdijadid, 2022). Methylphenidate hydrochloride is recommended for children and adolescents from ages 6-17, and various forms, including long-acting and intermediate release, can be prescribed depending on the patient’s response (Pliszka et al., 2017).(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
Bupropion is an off-label drug often prescribed for ADHD management. Bupropion is an antidepressant medication often prescribed for patients with side effects from stimulants. There exists some evidence of the efficiency of bupropion on ADHD symptoms and tolerability (Verbeeck et al., 2017).(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
One Nonpharmacological Intervention
Behavioral therapy is an effective treatment intervention for ADHD. Behavioral therapy is designed to improve a patient’s behavior, self-esteem, and self-confidence. The therapy is effective in young children (<6 years) when delivered by their parents (CDC, 2022b). Therefore, parents should be trained in behavior management. Cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended for children older than six years (Haugan et al., 2022). CBT helps children improve essential life skills, such as time management, problem-solving, and organization. CBT also reduces anxiety associated with ADHD.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
Age, drug adherence, and abuse are risk assessment areas for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. Medication strength varies with age and when dealing with children and adolescents, considering the dosage is crucial in avoiding adverse outcomes. The risk of intolerance and potential for abuse should be assessed for stimulant medications and other psychotic medications considering their neurological impacts. Taking psychotic medications is associated with behavioral changes, including depressed moods, agitation, and hostility. Methylphenidate, for instance, has a high risk of abuse (Verghese & Abdijadid, 2022). However, Methylphenidate has a calming effect and improves movement, attention, and motivation. Equally, bupropion improves ADHD symptoms such as impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity (Verbeeck et al., 2017). However, it can cause insomnia, a fast heartbeat, headache, constipation, and others. Adverse side effects such as suicide ideation have been reported (Kweon & Kim, 2019).(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
Clinical Practice Guidelines
There exist clinical practice guidelines for ADHD in children and adolescents. The America Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) established a guideline for assessing, diagnosing, and treating children and adolescents presenting symptoms of ADH (CDC, 2022c). The AAP guidelines recommend ADHD treatment based on chronic care and medical models, which upholds patient safety (Wolraich et al., 2019). For children between 4 and 6 years old, the AAP guideline recommends behavioural management at home (with the parent) or school. This provision justifies the recommendations made for behavioral therapy and parental training.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
The AAP guidelines for ADHD recommend that primary care providers adjust the dosage for every child or adolescent to achieve the most benefit and least side effects (Wolraich et al., 2019). These guidelines corroborate the recommendation for risk assessment to avoid medication’s potential side effects. For children older than six years, the AAP guideline recommends FDA-approved drugs besides behavioral therapy, which justifies the pharmacological recommendations made. In this case, Methylphenidate hydrochloride, a stimulant, is FDA approved as a first-line treatment for the management of ADHD in children aged above six years.(Drugs used in children with ADHD Comprehensive Essay Example)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022c August). ADHD Treatment Recommendations. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/guidelines.html (Accessed 16 December 2022)
Haugan, A. L. J., Sund, A. M., Young, S., Thomsen, P. H., Lydersen, S., & Nøvik, T. S. (2022). Cognitive behavioral group therapy as an addition to psychoeducation and pharmacological treatment for adolescents with ADHD symptoms and related impairments: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry, 22(1), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-022-04019-6
Kweon, K., & Kim, H. W. (2019). Effectiveness and safety of bupropion in children and adolescents with depressive disorders: a retrospective chart review. Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience, 17(4), 537. https://doi.org/10.9758%2Fcpn.2019.17.4.537
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (2017 December). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd (Accessed 16 December 2022)
Pliszka, S. R., Wilens, T. E., Bostrom, S., Arnold, V. K., Marraffino, A., Cutler, A. J., … & HLD200-108 Study Group. (2017). Efficacy and safety of HLD200, delayed-release, and extended-release Methylphenidate, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 27(6), 474-482. https://doi.org/10.1089/cap.2017.0084
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022a August). What is ADHD? Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html# (Accessed 16 December 2022)
The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022b August). Treatment of ADHD. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/treatment.html (Accessed 16 December 2022)
Verbeeck, W., Bekkering, G. E., Van den Noortgate, W., & Kramers, C. (2017). Bupropion for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (10). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009504.pub2
Verghese, C., & Abdijadid, S. (2022). Methylphenidate. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482451/.
Wolraich, M. L., Hagan, J. F., Allan, C., Chan, E., Davison, D., Earls, M., … & Zurhellen, W. (2019). Clinical practice guideline for diagnosing, evaluating, and treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 144(4). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2528