Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example


Sleep disorders are a significant cause of concern among the elderly population yet remain one of the most commonly underdiagnosed health complications in this population. According to Abbad  & Guilleminault (2018), a host of factors that include but are not limited to retirement, health problems, death of family members or spouse, and changes in circadian rhythm contribute sleep disturbances among geriatrics. While changes in sleep patterns may constitute part of the normal aging process, if related to pathological processes should not be regarded as part of aging but necessitate therapeutic measures to be taken. The therapeutic modalities herein entail psychological/ behavioral therapies, medications, or both, aiming to alleviate the client’s quality of life.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Questions to Patient

  1. How long per night do you sleep soundly?
  2. Do you find it challenging to fall asleep when you go to bed, or do the difficulties arise if you are awakened in the night?
  3. Are there meals or drinks that seem to exacerbate the lack of sleep?(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)
  4. Do physiological symptoms related to your medical conditions of MDD and T2DM worsen the symptoms of sleeplessness?
  5. Besides the prescribed medications, what nonpharmacological measures and interventions do you practice at home?

These questions are necessary for establishing the patient-specific risk factors for medical conditions of DM and HTN. Petrie et al. (2018) note that the risk factors for the two conditions are similar and could inform the identification of the protective factors the provider could tap into in creating an intervention plan. Likewise, it is vital to identify the risk factors and protective factors for MDD. Recognition of the alleviating and exacerbating factors could help craft the most effective intervention plans.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Questions to Caregivers

Family members constitute the largest group of caregivers attending to the elderly with multiple conditions at home and therefore have a rich history of the patient and can therefore collaborate the patient’s information (Ploeg et al., 2020). Additionally, PCPs play a key role in supporting caregivers in geriatrics by offering patient and family education and assisting in managing the patient’s comorbidities (Karp et al., 2021).

  1. Living children of the woman.
  2. At what age was your mother diagnosed with DM, HTN, and MDD?
  3. How effective are the prescribed therapeutic interventions in treating and managing each condition?
  4. If she is not being cared for by family, the geriatric caregiver who attends to her, nursing home, or any of its other alternatives.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)
  5. What specific challenges does this patient adhere to the prescribed treatment and management plans?
  6. The primary care provider whom she visits once or twice a year.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)
  7. What referrals like psychiatric assessment and screening have you conducted the patient over the last ten months and their findings?

Physical Exams and Diagnostic Tests (Paragraph form)

  1. The A1C test for diabetes- confirm T2DM diabetes and monitor the blood sugar levels
    1. ECG- to evaluate the presence of left venti hypertrophyThyroid Stimulation hormone- to determine the level of activity of the thyroid gland and rule out physiological causes to symptoms that could mimic MDD
    (Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)
    1. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)- the 21 questions multiple choice self-report would measure the severity of depressive symptoms and feelings.

Differential Diagnosis For The Patient  

  1. 6B42 Prolonged Grief Disorder (confirmed). -The symptoms were not present before and were triggered by the loss of her husband ten months earlier. No other psychiatric function is affected ( Killikelly & Maercker, 2017).
  2. F33.1 MDD-(Refuted) – while both MDD and PCBD can manifest through Insomnia- MDD is associated with feelings of guilt not related to grief. (Maurer et al., 2018).(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)
  3. F20.9 Schizophrenia, unspecified (Refuted) – A schizophrenic patient has symptoms involving delusions, hallucinations or impaired speech, and highly disorganized behavior, which is not the case for the patient (McCutcheon et al., 2020).

Pharmacological Agents and Mechanism of Action

  1. Naltrexone 50mg daily(PO)
  2. Citalopram

According to Gang et al. (2021), it is a partial inverse agonist and is thought to work on serotonin, thus promoting sleep. Citalopram was avoided because if taken together with other drugs like Bupropion, it increases the risk of seizures as a side effect.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Drug Therapy- Contraindications or Alterations in Dosing

Asian Americans have a higher than average population prevalence of Asp40 carriers and experience greater alcohol-induced (Ray et al., 2012). Their study found that Asp40 carriers experienced greater alcohol sedation and lower alcohol cravings when Naltrexone was administered. The double-blinded study offer reinforcement to the study of naltrexone pharmacogenetics in Asian Americans. It is contraindicated in other ethnic because the average frequency of Asp40 in African Americans is 0.004, 0.16 in SW American Indians, and 0.14 in Hispanics. Most importantly, beta-endorphins have been found to have a 3- fold higher binding affinity at the Asp40 mutated receptor than at the receptor encoded by the Asn40 Allele. Therefore, it would cause individuals in these communities (Oroszi et al., 2009).(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Checkpoints and Follow-Up

Gang et al. (2021) report that the primary outcome measures on the difference in prolonged grief disorder were measured using Prolonged Grief -13 Revised (PG-13-R) administered every week for the next 12 weeks (1-12). A Structured Clinical Interview was also administered during weeks 1-4 and 8). The PG-13-R is a self-rated scale. The researchers demonstrated that PG-13 R has good internal consistency in three study samples (Gang et al., 2021).(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Lessons Learned

I have learned that some gene mutations are more prevalent in some ethnic communities like the Asp40 among Asian Americans. This might prove advantageous in some psychoactive drugs like Naltrexone. This means that Asp40 polymorphism (DNA sequence variation common in a specific ethnic population) might render a drug more effective in some patients and not in others, hence its contraindication in patients from ethnic communities like African Americans and Caucasians.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)


Abad, V. C., & Guilleminault, C. (2018). Insomnia in elderly patients: recommendations for pharmacological management. Drugs & aging35(9), 791-817.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Gang, J., Kocsis, J., Avery, J., Maciejewski, P. K., & Prigerson, H. G. (2021). Naltrexone treatment for prolonged grief disorder: study protocol for a randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Trials22(1), 1-15.

Karp, J. F., Hamm, M. E., de Abril Cameron, F., Lightfoot, M., Maher, R., Kincman, J., & Reynolds III, C. F. (2021). Improving Effective Mental Health Consultation for Rural Older Adults Living With Depression and Pain: Learning From the Experiences of Rural Primary Care Physicians. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders23(2), 29380.(Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example)

Killikelly, C., & Maercker, A. (2017). Prolonged grief disorder for ICD-11: the primacy of clinical utility and international applicability. European Journal of Psychotraumatology8(sup6), 1476441.

Maurer, D. M., Raymond, T. J., & Davis, B. N. (2018). Depression: screening and diagnosis. American family physician98(8), 508-515.

McCutcheon, R. A., Marques, T. R., & Howes, O. D. (2020). Schizophrenia—an overview. JAMA Psychiatry77(2), 201-210.

Oroszi, G., Anton, R. F., O’Malley, S., Swift, R., Pettinati, H., Couper, D., … & Goldman, D. (2009). OPRM1 Asn40Asp predicts response to naltrexone treatment: a haplotype‐based approach. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research33(3), 383-393.

Pantell, M. S., Prather, A. A., Downing, J. M., Gordon, N. P., & Adler, N. E. (2019). Association of social and behavioral risk factors with earlier onset of adult hypertension and diabetes. JAMA network open2(5), e193933-e193933.

Petrie, J. R., Guzik, T. J., & Touyz, R. M. (2018). Diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: clinical insights and vascular mechanisms. Canadian Journal of Cardiology34(5), 575-584.

Ploeg, J., Garnett, A., Fraser, K. D., Baird, L. G., Kaasalainen, S., McAiney, C., … & Dufour, S. (2020). The complexity of caregiving for community-living older adults with multiple chronic conditions: A qualitative study. Journal of Comorbidity10, 2235042X20981190.


Discussion Forum on Insomnia-Comprehensive Nursing Essay Example

Need Someone to Write Your paper ✍️
We can Help